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Complications and Comorbidities in Hispanic Patients Who Develop Traumatic and Non-traumatic Acute Compartment Syndrome

February 2, 2021

Clinical Cases

This study aimed to identify risk factors for the traumatic and non-traumatic presentation of Acute Compartment Syndrome (ACS) within a majority Hispanic population by examining the medical records of different patients.

Abstract

This four-year retrospective analysis of 26 traumatic and 21 non-traumatic Hispanic patient cases presenting with ACS determined that 1) traumatic ACS occurred in younger males following fractures, consistent with common presentation in the field, and 2) non-traumatic ACS occurred in older patients with multiple comorbidities, increased use of statins, and anticoagulants. The vast majority (80%) of these non-traumatic cases also presented with hypertension. They, therefore, recommend that patients taking anticoagulants and statins be carefully monitored for the development of Acute Compartment Syndrome following non-traumatic qualifying events and advanced age.

Brief Case Description

Acute Compartment Syndrome affects approximately 1%-7% of the world population annually. Recognizing risk is essential for a timely diagnosis and early intervention. Currently, there is limited data on chronic conditions that may be risk factors for ACS. Within the Hispanic population, specifically, high rates of chronic conditions may be inadvertently aggravating patients’ prognosis. For this study, researchers hypothesized that ACS would present in patients with similar comorbidities, regardless of the triggering event. They aimed to identify the clinical characteristics between traumatic and non-traumatic ACS events to inform risk factors, especially for the Hispanic population and patients with multiple comorbidities.

Intervention and Outcome Summary

Acute compartment syndrome presentation is well characterized for traumatic ACS, but not necessarily valid for non-traumatic ACS. Risk factors for non-traumatic ACS may include exertional exercises, vascular surgery, blood clots, and prolonged compression of limbs. There may, however, be other comorbidities that could lead to greater increase risk, including the use of statins and anticoagulants. It is important to consider the patient’s medical history, pre-existing conditions, medications, and overall health to understand greater risk for diagnosis as well as impacts on recovery.

Original Publication:

Cureus

Authors:

Jorge Alejandro Bernal, Annelyn Torres-Reveron, Jose Andres Gonzalez

 
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